Managing human resources as well as managing the production of goods and services



A. Background

Management of human resources is a very important aspect of the educational process in general. Therefore functions in human resource management must be implemented optimally so that the requirement concerning the purpose of individuals, companies, organizations or institutions can be achieved. Besides, with the human resource management procedures are both expected shortcomings and problems faced by the Indonesian nation, which is associated with competitiveness can be resolved.
A constituent of evidence that can be from a variety of sources that Indonesia is still not ready to compete in a globalized world can be seen on the competitiveness of human resources. Experts we are not sufficient enough to compete at the global level. Judging from education, our workforce is now cause for serious concern. Most of the labor force (53%) are not educated.
Those basic education as much as 34%, 11% secondary education and highly educated (University) only 2% .Padahal the demands of the world of work at the end of the long-term development II later requires us educated workforce. Of the labor force is only 11% are uneducated; 52% of basic education; 32% of secondary education; and 5% of the workforce to be educated university.

B. Identification of the Problem
In this article we will discuss about how to manage human resources and managing the production of goods and services.

C. Objectives
In general, the discussion aimed to find out about how to manage human resources as well as how to manage the production of goods and services.



Simply put (objectively) the resource is defined as a means to an end, or the ability to make a profit. While the subjectively, resources can mean anything either in the form of objects or not things that humans need to make ends meet.
Managing the activities of producing goods and services is a process that can be interpreted as the means, methods and techniques of how real resources (labor, machinery, materials and funds) is transformed to obtain a result. Production is an activity to create or add to the usefulness of the goods or services.

1. Managing Human Resources

human resources is an important component in any development movement. Only from the human resources of greatest quality that can accelerate the development of the nation. With the quality of human resources so that pproduksi goods and services will also increase. To be a formidable human resources people must have sufficient quality so that it can be an effective development capital. Without the increase in quality, large population will give rise to various problems and a burden on development.
Analysis of the quality of human resources quality is often divided into physical and non-physical qualities. Indicators that can describe the physical quality of the population include education level, health status, and quality of life index. Non-physical quality includes religious spiritual quality, kekaryan, work ethic, personality qualities of society, and the quality of relationships in harmony with its surroundings.
Until now, both physical and non-physical qualities boast power manusioa Indonesia is still not as expected. Due to the difficulty of measuring the quality of non-physical, so that often made the benchmark is the quality of the physical.

Quality of life of the population of each country physically different from one another. This difference is caused by the environment, geography, and race genetics. The countries located around the equator, the quality of the population classified rendahdan these countries are least developed countries in the field of economy compared to countries that are in the subtropical regions. This situation is most likely caused because the areas around the equator musimseperti not recognize the change in the sub-tropical, so they can live all year round without having difficulty finding refuge mainly in winter. This is an educated population less thinking to face the challenges of nature, and eventually lead to lethargy.
With such circumstances, the population around the equator of his life remains poor despite these areas are rich in natural resources. This situation is very different from that of the population in the subtropical region although the region is not available natural resources are many, but they are able to master the technology, so that the mastery of the technology makes the quality of their lives for the better.
Indonesia that puts the economic sector that has been the priority of development, was not able to improve the quality of human resources.
Three main factors deciding HDI (Human Development Index) developed by UNDP are:

Population quality in education is very important to note, because it can describe the population's ability to master the development of science and technology. In education one of the problems facing Indonesia is the dropout rates were steeper.
To measure the level of education of the population, can be done by looking at the data on population are illiterate, graduated from elementary school, junior high school graduation, graduated from high school, and graduated from the University. There are several reasons menebabkan occurrence of these conditions in Indonesia, among others:
1. The cost of education is relatively expensive
2. Interests schooling is still very low
3. Means and education infrastructure are still not adequate and proportionate
4. The low quality of infrastructure
5. The low quality of teachers.
6. The low prosperity of teachers.

Some effort needs to be done to tackle the problem redahnya level of education, among others:
1. Expanding learning opportunities, either through the school or outside of school education. In addition it is necessary to the public awareness that education is a strategic media to improve the quality of resources Insaniah.

2. Relieve tuition fees and waive fees for those who can not afford, as well as providing scholarships to students who excel. In the Constitution also said that every citizen has the right to education and teaching. Therefore it is a duty of government to provide quality education services and the price is cheap.
3. Increase the number and quality of educational facilities and infrastructure, such as school buildings, laboratories, libraries, instructional media and the hiring of teachers and education experts are professionals.


      In addition to education, health of the population is an important factor that needs to ditingkatkatkan, because if people constantly ill, will affect the level of productivity. That is, more and more people who are sick, the lower the quality of the population based on the level of health. Health and nutrition of children in Indonesia is still cause for concern ..
          to increase / leveling the quality and quantity of affordable health care, manifested by revitalizing the health system on the base by expanding the network of effective and efficient, including IHC and Polindes, increasing the number and quality of health personnel / revitalization of the PKK cadres, the establishment of health service standard minimum for the performance of health systems comprehensive, and improving information systems at all levels of government.
Human resources is one factor in the changing economy. In the sense of how to create quality human resources and skills as well as highly competitive. In connection with this there is the important thing that touches the human resources in Indonesia, namely:
First there is an imbalance between the number of employment opportunities and the workforce.
Second, the level of education of the workforce there are still relatively low. Slowing down of the business world as a result of the prolonged economic crisis up to now resulted in low employment opportunities, especially for university graduates. While on the other hand, the number of college graduates labor force continues to increase. Limited employment opportunities for college graduates have an impact more and more unemployment scholars in Indonesia '
The phenomenon of rising unemployment undergraduate college should take responsibility. The phenomenon of unemployment is a critique for the undergraduate college education for its inability to create a climate that supports entrepreneurial skills of students.
Human resources issues have led to the development process that runs for less supported by adequate labor productivity. That's why the success of development for 32 years proud with an average growth rate of 7%, only comes from intensive use of natural resources (forest and mining), the flow of foreign capital in the form of loans and direct investment. Thus not come from the ability of human resource productivity is high.
Prolonged national economic downturn so far is a testament to the failure of development due to the low quality of human resources (HR) in the face of economic competition. This fact has not become conscious for Indonesia to re-fix past mistakes pad.

2. Managing the Production Activities of Goods and Services

The production process is a sequence of activities that should be undertaken in an effort to produce goods and services. In order to reach the point of optimal production process, it is necessary to increase productivity.
• Type of Production Process
The types of production processes there are various kinds when viewed from different angles. The production process is viewed from its form is divided into chemical processes, process transformation, assembling process, transport process and the creation of administrative services

 Production Process Goods and Services

Goods are objects that can be touched, while the services are objects that can not be seen and touched. Producing goods usually an activity change an item or set of items into other goods. Goods that can be processed raw materials from primary industru (such as flour and board). Goods produced can be semi-finished goods or barsang end. Production services serves primarily as a result of human activities of transport of goods, and the trading of goods. Services also created as a result of education, health seeking, obtaining financial services and government services.
Forms Production Services and desire Want to Accomplish the production process can be divided to:

1. Process analytics
In this process the goods can be processed into other types of goods (eg, rubber becomes a tool floats, balls, and gloves).
2. The process of synthetic
Is the process of forming an item of some kinds of raw materials (eg shoes that require adhesives, rubber, and leather)
3. The process of continuous
Is a continuous process that applies for an identical product. Examples are rice milling machine or process of making latex gloves.
4. Process intermittent
Is a production process in which the engine is always adjusted to the shape of goods to be made. Examples are machines used to make furniture.
Each production process has three important objectives: improving efficiency, increase productivity, and improve quality.


Some activities produce very complex and uses production equipment which is very expensive. In such cases producing activities should be planned with the best. Preparations to conduct produces include the following:
• Forecasting demand
• Plan the capacity of producing
• Determine the location of production activities
• Determine the layout of machines to manufacture
Scheduling of the production process is often said to be the master production schedule (MPS) is the scheduling of the phases of work has been planned and will be implemented

 Raw Material Inventory

1. Understanding Functions and Types of Inventory.
Control of supply is a managerial function is very important because a lot of physical inventory involves the largest investment rupiah. According to Handoko (2000), when the company menamankan too many funds in inventory, causing storage costs are excessive, and may have an "Opportunity Cost" (funds can be invested in more profitable investment ". Conversely, if the company does not have enough supplies may result costs due to a shortage of materials.
The term inventory (Inventory) is a general term that indicates anything or resources in an organization that is stored in anticipation of meeting the demand. Demand for internal or external resources include supply of raw materials, goods in process, finished goods or finished products, auxiliary materials or supplements and other components that are part of the company's product output.
The functions of inventory, among others:
1. Function Decoupling
The function of this inventory the company's operations internally and ekstrenal so that the company can meet the demand subscriptions are without depending on the supplier. Inventories of finished goods required to meet the demand for products that are not sure of the subscription.
2. Function Economist Lot Sizing
Inventory serves to reduce the costs per unit during production and purchase resources.
3. Anticipation Functions
Inventory serves as a safety for companies who often face uncertainty delivery period and the demand for goods. This inventory is important in order to smooth production process is not disrupted.
There are various types of inventory. Each type has specific characteristics and how management is also different. By type, the inventory can be distinguished on (Handoko, 2002):
1. Inventories of raw materials (raw materialist), namely the supply of tangible goods raw. This supplies derived from natural sources or purchased from the supplier or produced by the company.
2. Inventory of components assembly (purchased paris), namely the supply of goods consisting of components obtained from other companies, which can directly be assembled into a product.
3. Inventory WIP (work in process), namely the supply of goods which is the output of each part in the production process or that have been processed into a form, but it still needs to be further processed into finished goods.
4. Inventories adjuvant or auxiliary (supplies), namely the supply of goods needed in the production process, but not a part or component of finished goods.
5. Stocks of finished goods (finished goods), namely the supply of goods that have been processed or processed in the form of products and ready to be sold or shipped to customers.

 Role Inventory

Basically supply or facilitate the smooth running of the company's operations to be carried out successively to produce goods and deliver to customers. Supplies for the company, among other things useful for:
1. Eliminate the risk of delay in arrival of goods or materials needed by the company.
2. Stack the materials produced on a seasonal basis so that it can be used if the material does not exist in the market.
3. Maintaining the stability or the smooth operation of the company.
4. Achieving an optimal use of the machine.
5. Providing services to customers as well as possible.
6. Make production need not correspond to the use or sale.
Inventory is very important for a company as it works to combine operations consecutively in the manufacture of a product and deliver it to consumers.).
2. The Importance of Inventories Finished Product
Each company has a different policy in determining the level of finished product inventory. The purpose of the inventory of finished products is to dampen fluctuations in demand.

 Optimal Production Levels

Optimal production levels or Economic Production Quantity (EPQ) is a certain amount of production generated by minimizing the total cost of inventory (Yamit, 2002). EPQ method can be achieved when the magnitude of the cost of preparation (set up cost) and storage costs (carrying cost) incurred a minimum amount. That is, the optimal production levels will give you the total cost of inventory or total inventory cost (TIC) minimum.
EPQ method considering the level of finished goods inventory and demand for finished products. This method also consider the amount of preparation that affect the cost of production preparation. EPQ method using the following assumptions:
1. Goods produced has a production rate greater than the level of demand.
2. During the production is done, the degree of realization of inventory is equal to the level of production was reduced level of demand.
3. During production, the level of inventory is less than Q (EPQ) for use during fulfillment.


Human resources are all the potential associated with demographic data that is owned by a local or state that can be used to meet the needs of human life.
The quality of human resources is an important component in any development movement. Only from the human resources of greatest quality that can accelerate the development of the nation. Large population, if not followed by adequate quality, will be simply the burden of development. Quality is a state resident population either individually or in groups based on the level of progress that has been achieved.
Three main factors deciding HDI (Human Development Index) developed by UNDP are:
1. Education
2. Health
3. Economy
Human resource development can be interpreted as an attempt to prepare people both as individuals and as members of society with all its position. This means that the effort was not limited to the development of physical ability but also the mental ability to support a culture. Thus, the development of human resources that should be able to prepare the physical skills of a person so that he can meet the needs of herself and her dependents.
The process is defined as the means, methods and techniques of how real resources (labor, machinery, materials and funds) is transformed to obtain a result. Production is an activity to create or add to the usefulness of the goods or services.


In the development process, the human individual occupies a central position, because man is not just a subject but also creating and supporting development goals. In the development process, the human is a resource that acts as a supporting element of a major addition to the natural resources and technology, therefore it should be the quality of human resource needs in tingkatkatkan so as to manage the potential provided by nature without foreign aid and to facilitate the development ,


- Kadir, Mardjan and Umar Ma'sum. Education In Developing Countries. 1982. Surabaya: National Business.
- Masruri, Muhsinatun Siasah, et al. Education Population And Environment. 2002 Yogyakarta: UPT MKU UNY
- Sandi, I Made. Regional Geography of the Republic of Indonesia. 1985. Jakarta: Department of Geography Faculty UI
- Soerjani, Moh, et al. Environment Natural Resources and Population in Development. 1987. Jakarta: UI-PRESS.
- Wahono, et al. Family function in Enhancing Quality of Human Resources. 1995 Semarang: Ministry of Education and Culture
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